تحلیل مبانی اخلاقی ایفای نقش فاعل زیان در جبران خسارت مدنی با نگاهی تطبیقی به حقوق انگلیس و فرانسه

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

2 استاد گروه حقوق، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه حقوق، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

اخلاق در تعامل با حقوق بعنوان یک نظام هنجاری ناظر به رفتار و روابط اجتماعی، انسان را در زندگی فردی و اجتماعی در چهارچوب عقل و منطق کنترل میکند.جبران خسارت زیاندیده از مهمترین مباحث در حوزه ی مسئولیت مدنی بوده و روش و کیفیت جبران دارای آثار مهم شخصی و اجتماعی است و بحث از مبانی اخلاقی در روش جبران مقبولیت عام و دیدگاه تحقق عدالت اجتماعی را تقویت میکند. رویکرد ایفای نقش فاعل زیان در جبران تمامی اقسام خسارت (مادی، معنوی، بدنی ) با پذیرش و رضایت زیاندیده، توافقی ثانویه در گزینش روش و کیفیت جبران عینی بوده که جایگزین خسارت اولیه میگردد و نمود و تبلور و برجستگی آن در خساراتی میباشد که قابلیت جبران عینی با دخالت فاعل زیان و بر مبنای امکانات و تخصص او را دارد؛ و با بررسی و انطباق آن با اصول اخلاقی چون عدالت، انصاف، حسن نیت و نفی عسر و حرج بر هر روش و کیفیتی از جبران خسارت از جمله روشهای پولی، ارجحیت و برتری دارد که در پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی مبانی اخلاقی، با نگاهی تطبیقی به حقوق فرانسه و انگلیس مورد مطالعه قرار میگیرد. انطباق این رویکرد با مبانی اخلاقی مذکور به این ترتیب است که با وصف اطلاع و اشراف فاعل زیان و زیاندیده بر میزان خسارت وارده و روش جبران متناسب، از یک سو تمام خسارات وارده به زیاندیده جبران میشود از سوی دیگر با توجه به وضعیت فاعل زیان و امکانات فاعل زیان، از عسر و حرج نامبرده جلوگیری میشود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the ethical bases of playing the role of the victim in civil compensation with a comparative view of English and French law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossain Ghorbani 1
  • Bijan Haji Azizi 2
  • Mohammad Molodi 3
1 Ph.D. student in private law, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
2 Professor of Law Department, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Ethics in interaction with law as a normative system overseeing behavior and social relations, controls humans in their individual and social life within the framework of reason and logic. Compensation for damages is one of the most important issues in the field of civil liability, and the method and quality of compensation has important personal and social effects and the discussion of moral foundations in the method of compensation strengthens the general acceptance and the perspective of realizing social justice. the approach of playing the role of the cause of damage in compensating all types of damage (material, spiritual, physical) with the acceptance and satisfaction of the victim is a secondary agreement in choosing the method and quality of objective compensation that replaces the primary damage. and by examining and conforming it to moral principles such as justice, fairness, goodwill and negation of difficulty and embarrassment, it is preferable and superior to any method and quality of compensation, including monetary method which is studied in the present research with a descriptive-analytical method of moral foundations, with a comparative view of French and English law. the compliance of this approach with the aforementioned ethical principles is as follows with the description of the information and nobles of the perpetrator of the loss and the victim on the amount of damage and the proportional compensation method, on the one hand, all the damages caused to the victim will be compensated. on the other hand, according to the condition of the person causing the loss and the facilities of the person causing the loss, the mentioned difficulty and embarrassment will be avoided.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ethics
  • playing a role
  • compensation for objective damage
  • basics
  • the cause of the loss
  • the victim
  • fairness
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