جایگاه عقیم سازی در رفاه حیوانات شهری، بررسی تطبیقی ایران، اروپا، امریکای لاتین

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

برخی از اخلاق‌گرایان عقیده دارند که فلسفه حقوق حیوانات، عقیم‌سازی/خنثی‌سازی حیوانات را ناقض اصل احترام به آنان می‌داند و بنابراین برنامه‌های کنترل موالید Trap-Neuter Return (TNR) نیز غیرمجاز هستند. چرا که به‌‌نظر می‌رسد این عمل ناقض حقوق و آزادی‌های طبیعی حیوانات است. در پاسخ، پژوهش حاضر نشان می‌دهد که رویکرد رفاه حیوانات تحت شرایط خاصی، صدمه زدن به برخی از حیوانات (انسانی یا غیرانسانی) را قابل توجیه می‌داند، تا بدین وسیله از آسیب بیشتر به دیگران جلوگیری شود. بر مبنای فلسفه حقوق حیوانات، ایجاد آسیب کمتر به برخی از حیوانات برای جلوگیری از آسیب بیشتر به دیگران، همان‌گونه که در برنامه‌های TNR پیش‌بینی شده است، با درنظرگرفتن ارزش ذاتی هر دو دسته سازگارتر است. می‌توان حیوانات شهری خنثی/عقیم شده را پذیرفت در حالی که آن‌ها در نوع خود ارزش دارند. تجربه‌ی کشورهای اروپایی و امریکای لاتین نیز این نظر را تصدیق می‌نماید. گرچه روش‌های کشورهای پیشگام تا حدودی در ایران نیز اجرا می‌شود لکن در ایران، نظام‌مندی برنامه‌های کنترل موالید در راستای رفاه حیوانات کمتر مورد توجه بوده است. مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی در صدد آن است که ابتدا مشروعیت و سپس تاثیر عقیم‌سازی در رفاه حیوانات شهری را ضمن شرح قوانین و رویه‌های اجرایی در کشورهای مورد بحث، بررسی نماید. روش گردآوری مطالب کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی (مصاحبه) است که طی آن معضلات موجود بررسی و پیشنهاداتی برای رفع آن براساس اقدامات موفقیت‌آمیز ارائه خواهد شد. بر این اساس ابتدا مفهوم رفاه حیوانات و رویکردهای مبتنی بر آن، مزایا و مضرات عقیم‌سازی شرح داده شده و سپس به تجربه کشورهای مورد نظر پرداخته خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Neuterization in The Welfare of Urban Animals, Comparative Study of Iran, Europe, Latin America

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shima Arab Asadi 1
  • Nafise Maktabi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Mazandaran , Babolsar, Iran.
2 PhD student in Private Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Some ethicists believe that the philosophy of animal rights considers the sterilization/neuterization of animals as a violation of the principle of respect for them, and therefore Trap-Neuter Return (TNR) programs are also impermissible. Because it seems that this act violates the natural rights and freedoms of animals. In response, the present research shows that the approach of animal welfare under certain conditions considers it justifiable to harm some animals (human or non-human) in order to prevent further harm to others. Based on the philosophy of animal rights, causing less harm to some animals to prevent more harm to others, as envisioned in TNR programs, is more compatible with considering the intrinsic value of both categories. Neutered urban animals can be accepted while they have value in their own right. The experience of European and Latin American countries also confirms this opinion. Although the methods of the pioneering countries are implemented to some extent in Iran, in Iran, TNR programs in line with animal welfare has received less attention. The purpose of this article is to investigate the legitimacy and then the impact of neuterization on the welfare of urban animals with descriptive-analytical method, while describing the laws and enforcement procedures in the countries under discussion. The method is to collect library and field materials (interview), during which the existing problems will be examined and suggestions will be made to solve them based on successful measures. As a result, first the concept of animal welfare and the related approaches, the advantages and disadvantages of neuterization will be described and then the experience of the countries in question will be discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neuterization
  • Animal Rights
  • Animal Welfare
  • Urban Animals
  • Birth Control
  • Free Dogs
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دوره 8، شماره 1 - شماره پیاپی 13
در حال صفحه آرایی و بارگزاری فایل اصل مقالات
فروردین 1403
  • تاریخ دریافت: 06 شهریور 1402
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 28 مهر 1402
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 07 آذر 1402