مطالعه تطبیقی الگوی پاسخ دهی حقوقی به پدیده کودکان کار در حقوق ایران و آمریکا

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

2 استادیارگروه حقوق، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

چکیده

پدیده کودکان کار و خیابانی از جمله مشکلات اجتماعی است که در تقابل با فرهنگ و نظام ارزشی جامعه ایران قرار دارد. بررسی سیر تحولات تقنینی و سیاست‌گذاری‌ در این حوزه نشان می‌دهد که در مواجهه با این پدیده سه رویکرد کلی «انکار»، «مقابله» و «حمایت» وجود داشته است. کاربست این رویکردها در پاسخ‌دهی به پدیده کودکان کار در نظام‌های مختلف اجتماعی الگو‌های پاسخ‌دهی قانونی، برنامه‌ها و طرح‌های مختلفی را به بار آورده است. در این نوشتار با تکیه بر روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع به دست آمده از روش مطالعه اسنادی به بررسی تطبیقی الگوی‌های پاسخ دهی حقوقی به پدیده کودکان کار در حقوق ایران و آمریکا پرداخته و نشان می‌دهیم که این نظام‌های حقوقی در مواجهه با پدیده کودکان کار و خیابانی از چه الگویی برای پاسخ‌دهی استفاده کرده و این الگوها تا چه اندازه در رسیدگی به پدیده کودکان کار و خیابانی کارآمد بوده است. نتایج این بررسی نشان می‌دهد به رغم آنکه هر دو کشور کنوانسیون‌های بین المللی حمایت از حقوق کودکان را تصویب کرده‌اند، اما اراده سیاست‌گذاران در این دو کشور برای اجرای این کنوانسیون ها و اتخاذ رویکرد حمایتی نسبت به کودکان کار به طور قابل توجهی متفاوت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative study of the model of legal response to the phenomenon of working children in Iranian and American law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hesam Bordbar 1
  • Farhad Allahverdi 2
1 M.A in Criminal Law and Criminology, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Mazandaran , Babolsar, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Mazandaran , Babolsar, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The phenomenon of working and street children is one of the social problems that is in conflict with the culture and value system of Iranian society. Examining the course of legislative and policy-making developments in this area shows that in facing this phenomenon, there have been three general approaches of "denial", "confrontation" and "support". The application of these approaches in responding to the phenomenon of working children in different social systems has resulted in various legal response patterns, programs and plans. In this article, relying on the analytical descriptive method and using the sources obtained from the document study method, we have done a comparative study of the patterns of legal response to the phenomenon of child labor in the laws of Iran and America, and we show that these legal systems are facing With the phenomenon of working and street children, what model did he use to respond and how effective were these models in dealing with the phenomenon of working and street children. The results of this study show that despite the fact that both countries have ratified international conventions for the protection of children's rights, the will of the policy makers in these two countries to implement these conventions and adopt a protective approach towards working children. is significantly different.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Working children
  • street children
  • poverty
  • legal accountability
  • urban rights
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دوره 8، شماره 1 - شماره پیاپی 13
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فروردین 1403
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