مطالعه تطبیقی ماهیت روابط حقوقی در حکم قرارداد در حقوق ایران و انگلستان

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار حقوق خصوصی، گروه حقوق خصوصی، دانشکده معارف اسلامی و حقوق، دانشگاه امام صادق علیه السلام، تهران، ایران.

2 دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکده معارف اسلامی و حقوق، دانشگاه امام صادق علیه السلام، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

به لحاظ قواعد عمومی حاکم بر معاملات، تعهدات قراردادی بر پایه قصد طرفین و مفاد تراضی تعیین می‌شود؛ در عین حال، در مواردی این قاعده نادیده انگاشته شده و قانونگذار، برخلاف اراده حقیقی طرفین، وجود قرارداد را فرض نموده و ماهیتی قراردادی را در حکم ماهیت دیگر دانسته و آثار ماهیت دوم را بر ماهیت اول مترتّب ساخته است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تببین ماهیت و حدود این رویه عملی قانونگذار، به بررسی مصادیق روابط حقوقی که قانونگذار آن‌ها را در حکم قرارداد دیگر فرض نموده و ارائه ضابطه برای شناسایی آن‌ها در نظام حقوقی ایران و انگلستان با استفاده از روش توصیفی – تحلیلی پرداخته است. در حقوق انگلستان مصادیق این فرض ضمن عناوین قرارداد جانبی، اصل حسن‌نیت و فرض حقوقی قابل تصور است. در مقابل، مصادیق آن در حقوق ایران را باید از قبیل وکالت ظاهری، کفالت حکمی و ... دانست که مقایسه نهادهای مذکور در این دو نظام می‌تواند منجر به ارائه ضابطه روشنی از این قاعده عملی قانونگذار شود. پیرو بررسی این نهادها این نتیجه حاصل شد که مصادیق حقوق داخلی به لحاظ اسلوب و آثار، منطبق با ساختار قاعده حکومت در علم اصول فقه است و از سوی دیگر، به رغم اشتراکات این مفهوم با عناوین قرارداد جانبی و اصل حسن‌نیت در حقوق انگلستان، به لحاظ ماهوی باید آن‌ها را متفاوت شمرد. در مورد فرض حقوقی گرچه عموما در روابط غیر قراردادی جریان یافته و در حیطه قراردادی به لحاظ کاربرد و تبیین آثار و شرایط، توسعه کمتری در حقوق انگلستان هم در ادبیات حقوقی و هم در مقام اجرا دارد؛ به لحاظ هدف وضع و آثار با روابط حقوقی در حکم قرارداد مشابهت داشته و می‌توان رابطه منطقی آن دو را عموم‌وخصوص‌مطلق توصیف نمود؛ لذا در مقام تبیین آثار و قواعد حاکم بر این رویه قانونگذار داخلی می‌توان از احکام این نهاد بهره برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative study of the nature of legal relations assumed in the provision of another contract in the laws of Iran and England

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Mostafa Sa’adat Mostafavi 1
  • Atefe Zabihi 2
1 Associate Professor of Private Law, Department of Private Law, Faculty of Islamic Studies and Law, Imam Sadiq University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. of private Law, Department of Private Law, Faculty of Islamic Studies and Law, Imam sadiq University , Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Based on the general rules of contracts, contractual obligations create based on the intention and will of the parties and the content of the agreement; However, in some cases, the legislator does not observe this rule and he assumes that there is a contractual relationship between the parties, contrary to the real will of the parties; and he replaces the real nature with a contractual nature, and he imposes the effects of the second nature on the first. The present study aims to explain the nature and extent of this practical procedure of the legislator. Based on this, the authors have examined the examples of legal relations witch the legislator assumed as another contract, so that by using the descriptive-analytical method, authers could get a rule to identify them in the legal system of Iran and England. In English law, examples of this presumption are similar to collateral contract, good faith and legal fiction. On the other hand, its examples in the law of Iran should be considered such as apparent representation, coercive suretyship, etc. The comparison of the mentioned institutions can lead to providing a clear Criterion of this practical rule of the legislator. Finally, it was concluded that the examples of domestic‌ law are consistent with the structure of Usool-based Hokumat rule, and on the other hand, despite the similarities of this concept with the collateral contract and the good faith in English law, their nature should be considered different. But although the legal fiction is generally used in the field of non-contractual relations and it is less used in the contractual field in the English legal system (both in the legal literature and in practice); it is similar to Hokmi contract, and the logical relationship between the two can be described as “absolute general and specific”;

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • real contract
  • hokumat
  • legal fiction
  • collateral contract
  • good faith
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دوره 8، شماره 1 - شماره پیاپی 13
در حال صفحه آرایی و بارگزاری فایل اصل مقالات
فروردین 1403
  • تاریخ دریافت: 12 اسفند 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 19 تیر 1402
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 21 مرداد 1402