چالش های فراروی دسترسی عادلانه به واکسن و دارو در موافقتنامه تریپس با نگاهی به حقوق ایران (مصداق مورد بررسی: واکسن کرونا)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق خصوصی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

چکیده

با شیوع کرونا بار دیگر محدودیت‌های موافقتنامه تریپس آشکار شده است؛ چرا که رویکرد تریپس از طرفی بر حمایت از مالکیت معنوی واکسن و داروهاست و از طرف دیگر انعطاف‌پذیری‌های تریپس برای تضمین دسترسی عادلانه به فراورده‌های دارویی کافی نیست. مقاله حاضر چالش‌های منحصر به فردی را که به واسطه همه‌گیری کرونا به منصه ظهور رسیده، در نظر گرفته و برخی از گزینه‌هایی را که برای تسهیل دسترسی عادلانه به محصولات و فناوری‌های دارویی کووید19، پیشنهاد شده بررسی کرده و نشان می‌دهد که سیستم صدور مجوز داوطلبانه مذکور در تریپس که ابزاری برای دسترسی به داروهای مقرون به صرفه است، زمان‌بر بوده و نیاز به اصلاح دارد. بنابراین، برای مقابله با کرونا و بیماری‌های نوظهور، در حوزه‌های مربوط به سلامت عمومی کشورها باید با ایجاد ائتلاف‌های اجباری ثبت اختراع در جهت تسهیل صدور مجوز گام بردارند و یا از طریق گروه‌های تجاری، سیاسی، اقتصادی یا منطقه‌ای موجود نسبت به تامین واکسن و دارو اقدام نمایند در نظام حقوقی ایران نیز در ماده 17 قانون ثبت اختراعات، طرح های صنعتی و علائم تجاری به موضوع صدور مجوزهای بهره برداری اجباری در شرایط خاصی اشاره شده است. هر چند تصویب این قانون گامی دیگر در راستای هموار کردن مسیر الحاق ایران به سازمان تجارت جهانی است، ایرادات وارده به تریپس بر این قانون نیز وارد است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Challenges to fair access to vaccines and medicines in the TRIPS Agreement with a view to Iranian Law (Example under review: Corona vaccine)

نویسنده [English]

  • Omolbanin Ramzanzadeh
Assistant Professor, Department of Private Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Mazandaran , Babolsar, Iran.
چکیده [English]

After Prevalence of Corona, the limitations of TRIPS have been revealed, because the approach of TRIPS on one hand is to support the intellectual property aspects of the vaccine and drugs, and on the other hand, the flexibilities of TRIPS are not enough to ensure fair access to pharmaceutical products. This article examines the unique challenges that have come to the fore due to the Corona pandemic, and finally, examines some of the options that have been presented so far to facilitate equitable access to COVID-19 pharmaceutical products and technologies and shows that the voluntary licensing system mentioned in TRIPS, which is a tool to access affordable medicines, is time consuming and as such needs reform. Therefore, in order to deal with Covid-19 or emerging diseases, In the fields related to public health, countries should take steps in facilitating issuing licenses through establishing mandatory patent pools or to procure vaccine and drugs via already existing commercial, political, economic, or regional groupings now. In Iran's legal system, Article 17 of the Law on Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks mentions the issue of issuing compulsory exploitation licenses under certain conditions. Although the approval of this law is another step in the direction of smoothing the path of Iran's accession to the World Trade Organization, the objections to TRIPS also apply to this law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • right of access to medicine
  • Corona
  • Covid -19
  • compulsory license
  • TRIPS
  • agreement
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دوره 8، شماره 1 - شماره پیاپی 13
در حال صفحه آرایی و بارگزاری فایل اصل مقالات
فروردین 1403
  • تاریخ دریافت: 09 بهمن 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 31 فروردین 1402
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 08 تیر 1402